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Wastewater Treatment: Its Role in Environmental Sanitation

Man checking the wastewater treatmentWastewater treatment plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of water in the community. Studies show that the conversion of wastewater into reusable forms can decrease water shortage by as much as 30 per cent in a year. Also, modern wastewater solutions promote environmental sanitation to prevent infection and contamination.

How Does Wastewater Treatment Initially Occur?

Wastewater treatment involves several procedures that must be performed stepwise to ensure proper disposal. Initially, wastewater is collected from houses and offices for drainage into a principal point. Wastewater flows through pipes and moves into an underground drainage system. Treatment facilities then use chemicals to counteract the unpleasant smell of sewage. Screening for solids, such as plastics, bottles and garbage, is also done to eliminate objects that will impede the water treatment process.

What Are the Steps in Wastewater Treatment?

After collection, gross inspection and initial screening, the treatment process will ensue. Primary treatment involves placing wastewater into large containers for sedimentation. Through this procedure, the denser sludge settles on the bottom of the tank and is then eliminated. The filtered water then undergoes further decontamination during secondary treatment.

Secondary treatment involves chemical oxidation, which is characterised by water disinfection techniques to kill microorganisms. Addition of chlorine and hypochlorite are standard techniques to prevent the growth, respiration and metabolism of bacteria.

The non-renewable sources that have been initially filtered and collected during initial treatment require further processing before being released into the environment. Sludge is thickened and placed in aeration tanks to ensure that it is adequately treated before disposal.

The Bottom Line

Wastewater can undergo a series of processes during its conversion to renewable forms. The remaining two per cent comes from human excreta, solids and debris that can no longer be reused into potable water. Hence, it is essential to have regular wastewater treatment in commercial and residential areas for environmental sustainability.